English / ქართული /
bahçe dekorasyonu evde ek gelir eskişehir haber sondakika haberleri magazin haberleri seo sorgulama site analiz seo analiz google sıra bulucu backlink sorgulama sunucu tarama çekiliş çekiliş sitesi Who is html kod şifreleme seo hacklink hacklink satış hacklink panel youtube video indir instagram video indir facebook video indir wso shell php shell hacklink hacklink panel hızlı seo hacklink seo nedir wso shell instagram takipçi hilesi instagram takipçi hilesi
kuvvet macunusertleştirici hap isimlerieczane geciktirici hapsertleştirici haplarmarmaris escortcaptain black sigaradjarum blackMarlboro Double Fusionmarlboro shufflemarlboro double fusionmarlboro double fusionbets10 girisbetboo girisbahsegel girisbetist girismarlboro shufflecaptain black sigaraCamel WhiteEsse BlackCaptain Black BlueMarlboro Double FusionMarlboro ShuffleMilano EjectKENT D RANGE BLUEMore Sigara Kırmızı PaketLucky Strike Double ClickMarlboro Touch GrayWinston Dark BlueRothmans SigaraPall Mall Switch MentollüCavallo By Vasily Vinteroff MentollüWinston SlenderKent SwitchKent Mix Aroma SigaraMarlboro Double Fusion Summer KarpuzMarlboro Double FusionMarlboro Double MixDuty Free ShopDjarum VanillaKent MentollüMarlboro Touch AquaHEETSMarlboro TouchDjarum BlackMarlboro Goldcaptain blackParliament Aqua BlueCaptain Black sigaraParliament Night BlueKent SwitchDjarum BlackCaptain Black Darm CremaOlmeca TekilaJack Daniels Tennessee HoneyChivas Regal ViskiAmarula LikörAbsnithe Yeşil Perifree shopfree shop sigaracaptain black puroCaptain Black Bluefree shopmarlboro double fusiondjarum blackcaptain blackcaptain black sigaramarmaris escortcaptain black sigaracaptain blackdjarum blackdjarum blackmarlboro double fusioncaptain blackmarlboro double fusionfree shop sigarakent mentollüCaptain Black Dark CremaMarvel Compact Party MixMarlboro Double Fusion Summer Karpuzkent d range blueMarlboro ShuffleParliament Night BlueCaptain Black Sigarasupertotobet girisvdcasino girisMarlboro Double Fusiontipobet365 girisLucky strikekent switchparliament night bluemarlboro redmarlboro shuffleizmit escortkocaeli escortescort bursabursa escortgörükle escortbursa escortbursa merkez escortizmit escort bayanmini shellwso shellcgi telnetwso shellindoxploit shellsivas escortdüzce escortaksaray escorturfa escortbatman escortvan escortkarabük escortyalova escortredwin giristrabzon escortdiyarbakır escorttekirdağ escortsamsun escortmarlboro double fusionCaptain Black Bluesakarya escortniğde escortordu escortdjarum blackcaptain blacknevşehir escortmuğla escortkent switchmardin escortmaraş escortmalatya escortmanisa escortkütahya escortkonya escortizmit escortgebze escortısparta escortçorum escortkayseri escortkocaeli escorthatay escortantep escorteskişehir escorterzurum escortedirne escortçanakkale escortdenizli escortbursa escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortantalya escortafyon escortadana escortyozgat escortzonguldak escortyalova escorttunceli escortvan escortuşak escorttokat escortşırnak escortsinop escortsiirt escortrize escortniğde escortosmaniye escortnevşehir escortkütahya escortkırklareli escortkırşehir escortmuş escortkırıkkale escortkilis escortkastamonu escortkaraman escortkars escortkarabük escortizmit escortısparta escortığdır escorthakkari escortgümüşhane escortistanbul escortgiresun escortelazığ escortgebze escorterzincan escortedirne escortdüzce escortçankırı escortçanakkale escortçorum escortburdur escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbitlis escortbolu escortbayburt escortbartın escortartvin escortardahan escortbatman escortantalya escortağrı escortafyon escortamasya escortaksaray escortadıyaman escortmanisa escortçerkezköy escortçorlu escortsivas escortizmir escortbalıkesir escorthatay escorterzurum escorturfa escortsamsun escorttrabzon escorttekirdağ escortsakarya escortmuğla escortordu escortadana escortbursa escortantep escortdenizli escortaydın escortankara escortdiyarbakır escortmardin escortkonya escortmalatya escorteskişehir escortmaraş escortmersin escortkayseri escortkocaeli escortistanbul escortşişli escort bayanşişli bayan escortmecidiyeköy escortşişli escortizmir escortantalya escortsakarya escorthaymana escortgölbaşı escortkeçiören escortmamak escortpolatlı escortescort bayaneskort ankaragörükle escortnilüfer escortantalya escortsakarya escortizmir escortAn0n 3xPloiTeRBase 64 EncodeIndoSec Shellmobilbahis giriscavallo sigaracavallo sigaramarlboro touch aquacaptain black puroizmir escortankara escortmersin escorteskişehir escortgaziantep escortsakarya escortkayseri escortantalya escortistanbul escortbursa escortadana escortdenizli escortavcılar escortbüyükçekmece escortümraniye escortbakırköy escortkurtköy escortsamsun escortkadıköy escortkartal escortşirinevler escortbeylikdüzü escortşişli escortyalova escortataşehir escortbahçeşehir escortbahçelievler escortmecidiyeköy escortfatih escortbeşiktaş escortbağcılar escortkonya escortbaşakşehir escortnişantaşı escortelazığ escortpendik escorthalkalı escortkocaeli escortdiyarbakır escortesenyurt escorttuzla escortgebze escortizmit eskortCaptain Black Bluecialis nedircialis fiyatıcialiscialiscialis siparişonline cialiscialis ilaccialis ilaccialis satın alcialis fiyatcialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialissertlesme sorunuerkeklerde sertlesmecialiscialis alcialis 100 mgcialis 20 mgcialis 20 mgcialiscialis 5 mgcialis 5 mgcialis 20 mgtadalafilcialis 100 mgcialiscialiscialiscialis nedirereksiyoncialis ilaccialiscialiscialis 5 mgcialiscialis satin alcialis fiyatlaricialis yan etkicialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialis 100 mgadall fotosellihasta yatağıepoksibftmedilab aestheticmedilabseobridge istanbulnice türkiyeviagra nedirviagra fiyatviagra fiyatviagra kullanı mıviagra yan etkileriviagra satın alviagra nedirviagra eczanesildenafilviagra yan etkileriviagra kullanımıviagra satın alviagra fiyatısildenafil fiyatıviagra fiyatıviagra fiyatı 2022 eczaneviagra fiyatları 2022viagra siparişviagraviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatviagraviagra fiyatlariviagra 100 mgviagra kremviagra siparişviagra eczane fiyatıviagra 50 mgviagra eczaneviagra fiyativiagra satisviagra fiyatviagra 100 mgviagra 100 mgviagra 100 mgviagra satisviagra fiyatıviagra eczaneviagra fiyatlarıviagraviagraankara escortAnkara rus escortankara escortankara escort bayanSincan escortankara escortEscort ankaraAnkara escort kızlarSincan escort bayanEscort sincanEryaman escortEryaman escort bayanEscort eryamanKeçiören EscortKeçiören escort bayanEtlik escortEtlik escort bayanÇankaya escortÇankaya escort bayanKızılay escortKızılay escort bayanantalya escortantalya escort bayanEscort antalyaantalya escortantalya escort bayanEscort antalyaankara escortankara escort bayanEscort ankaramucize kremsakal serumuegzama şampuanıescort bursaseboreik dermatit şampuanegzama için şampuankeratin serumpriligy 60 mg fiyatıdapoksetin fiyatıpriligy 30 mg fiyatıpriligy fiyatyapay kızlık zarıtitan jeldelay spreytitan jelgeciktirici hapcialis fiyatcialis 100 mgviagra fiyatıpenis büyütücü kremhacklink satışetlik escortemek escortulus escortdemetevler escortdikmen escortsincan escorteryaman escorteczanelerde satılan sertleştiricilerAtaşehir escortŞerifali escortÜmraniye escortGöztepe escortAnadolu yakası escortAtaşehir escortKadıköy escortBostancı escortKadıköy escortÜmraniye escortBostancı escortAnadolu yakası escortAtaşehir escortKüçükyalı escortİçerenköy escortAnadolu Yakası escortAtaşehir escortAtaşehir escortKadıköy escortBostancı escortKozyatağı escortAcıbadem escortÜmraniye escortataşehir escortkadıköy escortbostancı escortümraniye escortkartal escortmaltepe escortpendik escortkurtköy escortanadolu yakası escortataşehir escort bayanbostancı escortkadıköy escortpendik escortkartal escortümraniye escortgöztepe escorttuzla escortmaltepe escortkurtköy escortmaltepe escortkurtköy escort bayankartal escort bayananadolu yakası escortpendik escort bayancanli bahis oynagaziantep escortmersin escortsohbet numaralarıtyrone unblocked gamessohbet hattıadana escortadana escortadana escortkayseri escortpendik escortdeneme bonusukurtköy escortkurtköy escortgaziantep escorttuzla escortsohbet numaralarıpendik escortmaltepe escortbedava bonus veren bahis sitelerikartal escortdeneme bonusu veren bahis sitelerianadolu yakası escortAnadolu Yakası Escortanadolu yakası escortmaltepe escortpendik escortanadolu yakası escortgöztepe escortkartal escortkurtköy escortkadıköy escortanadolu yakası escortümraniye escortbostancı escortataşehir escortKent Switchjetbahis girismarlboro ice bluebostancı escortkurtköy escortkartal escortümraniye escortmaltepe escortpendik escortanadolu yakası escortanadolu yakası escortmaltepe escorttuzla escortanadolu yakası escortAtaşehir Escortanadolu yakası escortataşehir escortkadıköy escortAvcılar EscortArnavutköy EscortAtaköy Escortataşehir escortZeytinburnu EscortYeşilköy EscortSuadiye EscortTaksim EscortŞişman EscortTopkapı EscortYenibosna EscortÜmraniye EscortÜsküdar EscortSınırsız EscortŞişli EscortSilivri EscortŞirinevler Escortseks hikayeleriadana escortadana escortadana escortadana escortafyon escortafyon escortafyon escortafyon escortağrı escortseks hikayeleriağrı escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortantalya escortantalya escortalanya escortalanya escortantep escortantalya escortartvin escortartvin escortantep escortartvin escortaydın escortseks hikayeleriartvin escortantalya escortkonya escortbalıkesir escortmersin escortaydın escortartvin escortordu escortbeylikdüzü escortbolu escortbeylikdüzü escortrize escortbodrum escortbeylikdüzü escortbolu escortbodrum escortbolu escortbeylikdüzü escortburdur escortburdur escortçanakkale escortburdur escortbodrum escortbodrum escortbursa escortbursa escortçanakkale escortbursa escortbolu escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçeşme escortçanakkale escortçeşme escortcanakkale escortçeşme escortçeşme escortçorum escortdenizli escortçorum escortyozgat escortdenizli escortdidim escortdidim escortdidim escortyalova escortdiyarbakır escorturfa escorttunceli escortuşak escorttrabzon escortdidim escortvan escortsivas escortdiyarbakır escortdiyarbakır escortzonguldak escortdüzce escorttokat escorttekirdağ escortşırnak escortdüzce escortedirne escortsinop escortdüzce escortedirne escortsiirt escortedirne escortsamsun escortedirne escortsakarya escortelazığ escortrize escortedirne escortosmaniye escortelazığ escortordu escortelazığ escortmuş escortelazığ escortniğde escortelazığ escortnevşehir escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzincan escorterzincan escortmuğla escortmersin escortmaraş escorterzincan escortmardin escorterzurum escorterzincan escorterzurum escortmanisa escortkonya escorterzurum escortmalatya escorteskişehir escorterzurum escortkütahya escortkocaeli escorterzurum escortkırıkkale escorrtağrı escortkırklareli escortadana escortkırşehir escortafyon escortantalya escortantep escortantalya escortkilis escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escortkastamonu escortbalıkesir escortaydın escortadana escortartvin escortafyon escortantalya escortbeylikdüzü escortbalıkesir escortbodrum escortbodrum escortbolu escortgiresun escortgiresun escortkaraman escortkarabük escortkars escortizmit escortısparta escortistanbul escortizmir escortgiresun escortsex hikayelerigümüşhane escortığdır escorthakkari escorthatay escortgümüşhane escorthatay escorthatay escortgümüşhane escorthatay escortgümüşhane escortsex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayelerisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesiısparta escortısparta escortısparta escortısparta escortmalatya escortsex hikayesihacklink satışVhosts Bypass shellwebadmin.php shellk2ll33d shellhtml kod şifrelemehtml code encryptionistanbul escortkurtköy escortşişli escortmecidiyeköy escortistanbul escortbodrum escortbodrum escortkurtköy escortpendik escortbeşiktaş escortesenyurt escortbeylikdüzü escortcevizlibağ escorteminönü escortçağlayan escortbeyoğlu escortbayrampaşa escortavrupa yakası escortbomonti escortflorya escortbebek escortesenler escortbodrum escortantalya escortankara escortbeylikdüzü escortbeşiktaş escortantalya escortistanbul escortadana escortdedektiftravestibodrum escortescort bodrumbodrum escortadana escortafyon escortadıyaman escortağrı escortantalya escortaydın escortamasya escortbartın escortankara escortbatman escortardahan escortaksaray escortbalıkesir escortartvin escortbilecik escortbayburt escortbingöl escortbitlis escortçankırı escortedirne escortdenizli escortçanakkale escortelazığ escortdiyarbakır escortburdur escortbolu escortdüzce escorterzurum escortçorum escortbursa escorterzincan escorteskişehir escortgaziantep escorthakkari escortizmir escortgümüşhane escortkars escortistanbul escortgebze escortkırıkkale escortgiresun escortkilis escortkastamonu escortığdır escorthatay escortısparta escortkırklareli escortkarabük escortkıbrıs escortkaraman escortkayseri escortkırşehir escortmersin escortkocaeli escortmuş escortsamsun escortmuğla escortsiirt escortnevşehir escortordu escortkütahya escortmanisa escortmalatya escortniğde escortosmaniye escortsinop escortmaraş escortmardin escortrize escortkonya escortsakarya escortşırnak escortsivas escorttokat escortvan escortyalova escortyozgat escortalanya escorttekirdağ escorturfa escortdidim escortzonguldak escortuşak escorttunceli escorttrabzon escortkuşadası escortfethiye escortmanavgat escortçankaya escortselçuklu escortyenimahalle escorttorbalı escortetimesgut escortküçükçekmece escortkeçiören escortşahinbey escortbahçelievler escortosmangazi escortbaşakşehir escortyalıkavak escortuludağ escorttorba escorttarsus escorttürkbükü escortside escortsöke escortsilifke escortselimiye escortserdivan escortşile escortseferihisar escortselçuk escortşarköy escortsarıgerme escortsapanca escortreyhanlı escortortaca escortodunpazarı escortölüdeniz escortmudanya escortmilas escortmenemen escortmenderes escortmarmaris escortmanavgat escortlüleburgaz escortlara escortmalkara escortlapseki escortkuşadası escortkumluca escortkundu escortköyceğiz escortkonyaaltı escortkumla escortkonak escortkırıkhan escortkaş escortkemer escortkeşan escortkartepe escortkarasu escortkapadokya escortislahiye escortkaraburun escortiskenderun escortinegöl escortiğneada escortgüvercinlik escortgümbet escortiçmeler escortgüllük escortgöynük escortGörükle EscortGölcük Escortgöcek escortgelibolu escortfinike escortgazipaşa escortfethiye escorteryaman escorterdemli escortezine escortenez escortedremit escorterdek escortdörtyol escortdidim escortdikili escortdatça escortdemre escortdalyan escortşehitkamil escortbağcılar escortsultangazi escortsincan escortpendik escortmaltepe escortümraniye escortavcılar escortbergama escortesenler escortantakya escortkartal escortbornova escortkarşıyaka escortiskenderun escortizmit escortbeylikdüzü escortataşehir escortgaziemir escortnarlıdere escortarnavutköy escorttuzla escortüsküdar escortesenyurt escortnazilli escortmarmaris escortbeşiktaş escortsancaktepe escortbeyoğlu escortbeykoz escortşişli escortsarıyer escortzeytinburnu escortgaziosmanpaşa escortkağıthane escortçekmeköy escortfatih escortbayrampaşa escortkonak escortbuca escortbodrum escortalsancak escortantalya escortadıyaman escortadana escortdiyarbakır escorterzurum escortaksaray escortbitlis escortkadıköy escortbalıkesir escortbatman escortçeşme escortafyon escortburdur escorthatay escortmuğla escortkastamonu escortgiresun escortgebze escortbursa escortkonya escortmalatya escortniğde escortkilis escortısparta escortsakarya escortkarabük escortedirne escortgaziantep escorteskişehir escortkütahya escortordu escortsamsun escorttokat escortmersin escortsiirt escortsincan escorttekirdağ escortosmaniye escortmardin escorturfa escortmaraş escortuşak escortmanisa escortvan escortescortyalova escortturgutreis escortyozgat escortzonguldak escortPendik EscortMerter EscortOlgun EscortOrtaköy EscortNişantaşı EscortMaslak EscortMahmutbey EscortMecidiyeköy EscortMaltepe EscortLevent EscortKurtköy EscortKüçükyalı EscortKüçükçekmece EscortKartal Escortfulya escortfındıkzade escorthalkalı escortgebze escortgüngören escorteyüp escortfikirtepe escortferiköy escortgöztepe escortGalata Escortfirüzköy escortfanerbahçe escortfatih escortesentepe escortetiler escortesenyalı escortedirnekapi escortdudullu escorterenköy escortdavutpaşa escorthalıcıoğlu escorthaliç escortgüzelyurt escortgöktürk escortgürpınar escortgüneşli escortçubuklu escortgültepe escortçırpıcı escortcihangir escortcevizli escortçengelköy escortçekmeköy escortçavuşbaşı escortçapa escortçamlıca escortçakmak escortcaddebostan escortbüyükçekmece escortbeylerbeyi escortbulgurlu escortbeykoz escortbeyazıt escortbatışehir escortbaşakşehir escortbostancı escortbalmumcu escortbalat escortbahçelievler escortbakırköy escortbahçeşehir escortavcılar escortbağlarbaşı escortataşehir escortbağcılar escortateştuğla escortatalar escortataköy escortataakent escortarnavutköy escortaltunizade escortalibeyköy escortaksaray escortağva escortacıbadem escortKağıthane Escortİkitelli EscortFatih Escortkadıköy escortEtiler EscortErenköy EscortGöztepe EscortHaramidere EscortKadıköy EscortÇağlayan EscortGenç EscortBüyükçekmece EscortHalkalı EscortFındıkzade EscortEscort Numaralarıİstanbul EscortFlorya EscortÇapa Escortçorum escortçankırı escortçanakkale escortbursa escortdenizli escortdiyarbakır escortelazığ escortedirne escortdüzce escortburdur escortgiresun escorteskişehir escorterzincan escortbolu escortbitli escortbingöl escorterzurum escortbilecik escortbayburt escortbatman escortbartın escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortartvin escortardahan escortantalya escortantep escortankara escortankara escortaksaray escortamasya escortağrı escortafyon escortadıyaman escortsex hikayeleriteknoloji haberlerigüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberleradana escortgüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerpendik escortkurtköy escortbakirkoy escortbesiktas escorttaksim escortcaglayan escortcevizlibag escortkurtkoy escortgungoren escortbahcelievler escorteminonu escortescort istanbulbomonti escortbeyoglu escortbeykoz escortbeyazit escortatasehir escortbebek escortbayrampasa escortbasaksehir escortbalmumcu escortbahcesehir escortbahcelievler escortbahcekoy escortbahariye escortatasehir escortatakent escortarnavutkoy escortalibeykoy escortanal escortacibadem escortadalar escortadapazari escortpendik escortalibeykoy escortaltinsehir escortduty free shopEsenyurt EscortEscort Bayanlarçekmeköy escortElit EscortÇıtır Escortşerifali escortsuadiye escortüsküdar escortCihangir Escortgöztepe escortbostancı escortCevizli EscortBostancı Escortgöztepe escortbostancı escorterenköy escortBeyoğlu EscortCennet Mahallesi Escortümraniye escortbursa eskortbursa ucuz escortbursa escort bayanbodrum escortbiotin fiyatsaç vitaminilifta 5 mg 28 tablet en ucuz fiyatlifta 5 mg 28 tablet eczane fiyatıcialis 5 mg 28 tablet fiyatlifta 5 mg 28 tablet fiyatlifta 5 mg fiyatcialis 5 mg fiyatlifta 20 mg fiyatpriligy fiyateczanelerde satılan sertleştiricilerpriligy 30 mg fiyatıcialis 20 mg kullanıcı yorumlarıgeciktirici hap eczanegeciktirici sprey eczanelifta 20 mg yorumlarlifta 5 mg 28 tablet kullanıcı yorumlarıcialis kullananlardapoksetin fiyatılifta 5 mg 28 tablet fiyatizmir escorteskişehir escortantalya escortankara escortfethiye escortmersin escortkocaeli escortgaziemir escortdikili escortselçuk escortaliağa escortayvalık escortdidim escortkuşadası escortfethiye escortmarmaris escortbodrum escortçeşme escortkarabağlar escortgaziemir escortbornova escortkonak escortalsancak escortbuca escortkarşıyaka escortgüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerkadın haberlerigüncel haberlergüncel haberlerguncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerspor haberlerikadın haberleriyemek tarifleriteknoloji haberleriyemek tarifleriyemek tarifleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberlerifutbol haberlerispor haberlerikadın haberlerispor haberleriekonomi haberleriekomomi haberleriekonomi haberlerispor haberlerispor haberlerisağlık haberlerisağlık haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberleriigüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerteknoloji haberlerigüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerekonomi haberleriekonomi haberleriekonomi haberlerigüncel haberleroyun haberlerioyun haberlerispor haberleriavrupa yakası escortsuadiye escortanadolu yakası escortBeylikdüzü EscortBeşiktaş Escortanadolu yakası escortBayrampaşa EscortBaşakşehir Escortümraniye escortatalar escortBakırköy EscortBağcılar EscortAnadolu Yakası Escortataşehir escortbostancı escortümraniye escortBahçelievler EscortAvrupa Yakası Escortbostancı escortkadıköy escortmaltepe escortcevizli escortkartal escortBağdat Caddesi Escortkurtköy escortÜmraniye EscortSilivri EscortTaksim EscortSarıyer EscortZeytinburnu EscortSultangazi EscortÜsküdar EscortAcıbadem EscortSuadiye EscortTopkapı EscortYakacık EscortTuzla EscortSancaktepe EscortŞirinevler Escortpendik escortmaltepe escortAvcılar Escortataşehir escortPendik EscortMerter EscortGöztepe EscortAksaray EscortMecidiyeköy EscortŞişli Escortaydınlı escortanadolu yakası escortKartal EscortBüyükçekmece Escortkadıköy escortAtalar EscortAtaşehir EscortAtaköy EscortMaltepe Escortİstanbul Escortİkitelli Escortümraniye escortKadıköy EscortHalkalı EscortGüngören EscortKurtköy Escortİçerenköy Escortistanbul escortmalatya escortelazığ escortantalya escortadana escortbursa escortbatman escortantep escortkocaeli escortdiyarbakır escortkayseri escortanadolu yakası escortmutlukent escortEsenyurt Escortgebze escortEsenler EscortGebze EscortCennet Mahallesi Escorttuzla escorthatay escortEtiler Escortsamsun escortankara escortdenizli escortkonya escort bayansakarya escorteskişehir escortizmir escorterzurum escortkuşadası escortadana escortağrı escortmaraş escortosmaniye escortkaraman escortbayburt escortkarabük escortkars escortbingöl escortsiirt escortniğde escorttunceli escortkastamonu escortaksaray escortyalova escortmuş escortamasya escortnevşehir escortvan escortuşak escortbatman escorttekirdağ escortbitlis escortdüzce escortadapazarı escortbolu escortsakarya escortçanakkale escortısparta escorttrabzon escortamasya escortyalova escortkarşiyaka escorttekirdağ escortkırklareli escortkırıkkale escortsinop escortgaziemir escortçankırı escortkırsehir escortkuşadası escortkaraman escortartvin escortkarabük escortkastamonu escortrize escortyozgat escortgiresun escortniğde escorterzurum escortçorum escortordu escortelazığ escortmaraş escortaydın escortmardin escortvan escorturfa escortaksaray escortburdur escortçeşme escortelazığ escortkütahya escortardahan escortmardin escortedirne escortçankırı escortrize escorterzincan escortordu escortburgaz escortçorum escortığdır escortçorlu escorthatay escorteskişehir escortbursa escortaydın escortçanakkale escortdenizli escortkonya escortbilecik escortizmit escortalanya escortyozgat escortburdur escortkütahya escortuşak escorttrabzon escorthatay escortkıbrıs escortbalıkesir escortmuğla escortalanya escortmutlu son masajÇatalca Escortanadolu yakası escortadıyamanescortbodrum escortbartın escortafyon escorttokat escortaksaray escortkırıkkale escorturfa escortzonguldak escortsinop escortvan escorttrabzon escortmaltepe escortyozgat escortkurtköy escort bayanBeylikdüzü Escortpendik escortBostancı EscortBayrampaşa Escortcorum escortkütahya escortBakırköy Escorttekirdağ escortBeykoz Escorturfa escortaydın escortpendik escort bayanmanisa escortbostancı escortçanakkale escortmardin escortyalova escortgiresun escortosmaniye escortkurtköy escortbalıkesir escortafyon escortmuğla escortedirne escorterzurum escortmanisa escorttokat escortantalya escortordu escortataköy escorttaksim escortgaziosmanpaşa escorteyüp escortbebek escortlevent escortetiler escortsarıyer escortbayrampaşa escortesenler escortüsküdar escortbeyoğlu escortarnavutköy escortsancaktepe escortbeykoz escortküçükçekmece escortzeytinburnu escorttrabzon escortmalatya escortdjarum black karanfildjarum black satın almarlboro touchmuratti sigaracamel sigarakent mentollüKent Mix böğürtlenliParliament Night Bluemarlboro double fusionWinston Dark Blueankara escortağrı escortaydın escortbostancı escortkağıthane escortamasya escortiçerenköy escortkozyatağı escortkıbrıs escortmerter escortortaköy escorterenköy escortşaşkınbakkal escortçekmeköy escortsultançiftliği escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortvan escortuşak escorttunceli escortardahan escortmaraş escorturfa escortsivas escortgiresun escortkartal escort bayanyakacık escortBahçeşehir Escortnice yetkili serviskartal escortBahçelievler Escortkadıköy escortAvrupa Yakası Escortartvin escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escorttokat escortbayburt escortbilecik escortbingöl escorttekirdağ escortsivas escortşırnak escortsinop escortrize escortsiirt escortosmaniye escortbitlis escortordu escortniğde escortnevşehir escortmuş escortmuğla escortmardin escortmanisa escortkütahya escortkırşehir escortkırklareli escortkırıkkale escortkilis escortkastamonu escortkars escortkarabük escortbolu escortburdur escortçanakkale escortmaraş escortısparta escortKent Switchfree shopDjarum Blackkent switchMarlboro Shufflecaptain blackMarlboro Touchfree shop alkolmarlboro touch blueMarlboro Touch Graymilano sigaracaptain black sigara fiyatığdır escortçankırı escorthatay escortçorum escortgümüşhane escortgiresun escorterzurum escorterzincan escortedirne escortdüzce escortankara escortescort ankaraçankaya escortadana escortkurtköy escortKurtköy EscortEscort KurtköyKurtkoy Escort BayanKurtkoy Escortdavidoff gold slenderdjarum black vişneWinston Lightcaptain blackcialismentollü sigaraWinston SlenderKENT D-RANGE BLUEMilano EjectCaptain Black Bluefree shop sigarafree shopMarlboro Double FusionCaptain Black SigaraMarlboro Double FusionMarlboro ShuffleMarlboro Double Fusioncaptain black sigaraKent SwitchCaptain Blackmarlboro gold touchmarlboro touch aquacaptain black satın alesse blackLucky Strike MixMarlboro Touch Aquadjarum black satın alMarlboro Double FusionKent Mixkent d range blueDjarum BlackLucky Strike Mix 4 AromalıOlmeca Tekiladjarum blackKent Switch MentollüGENTLEMAN JACKWinston LightWinston SlenderWinston Dark BlueWinston Light SigaraMarvel PipersVosue FrissonOme Super Slim MentollüMarlboro Double Fusion Summer Karpuzparliament night blueKent SlimROTMANS SigaraMarlboro Gold TouchMarlboro GoldKent Switchfree shop alkolCaptain Black Darm CremaMarlboro Double FusionMeharisKent SwitchBackwoods Islak PuroMarlboro RED KırmızıVosue FrissonKENT D RANGE BLUEDavidoff Gold SlenderCaptain Blackfree shopWinston Slenderescort bayanmersinescortDavidoff SigaraGENTLEMAN JACKChivas RegalMarlboro Gold Touchfree shopmarlboro touchKENT D-RANGE BLUEDavidoff SigaraCavallo By Vasily Vinteroff MentollüMarvel Compact Party MixDjarum VanillaAlcapone Sigaracamel brownkent slimRothmans SigaraColts Red Deluxe Vişne SigaraTekel 2001Djarum BlackLucky Strike Double ClickKent MentollüMarlboro Double MixDuty Free ShopWinston Classic Red SigaraPall Mall Switch MentollüRothmans SigaraLucky Strikefree shop alkolParliament Aqua BlueMarlboro TouchMarlboro Touch AquaDjarum VanilyaDuty Free ShopAmarula LikörAbsnithe Yeşil PeriDavidoff Gold SlenderParliament Night Bluecaptain blackMarlboro Touch AquaMarlboro Double Fusion SummerMarlboro Touch AquaTekirdağ Rakı Çeşitleriolmeca tekilaDjarum BlackParliament Night BlueMarlboro Double Fusion Summer KarpuzWinston Dark BlueDavidoff SigaraCaptain Black BlueMarvel Compact Party MixMarlboro Gold Touchfree shop puroMilano EjectEsse BlackROTMANS SigaraMore Sigara KırmızıMarlboro Touch GrayRothmans SigaraToscanello Puroşişli escortmecidiyeköy escortMarlboro RED KırmızıKent MentollüMarlboro Double BurstMarlboro Double Fusion Summer Karpuzmarvel sigaraspor haberlerizonguldak escortzonguldak escortzonguldak escortsex hikayeleriyozgat escortmalatya escortkars escortdenizli escortmanisa escortmersin escorttokat ecsortbeylikdüzü escortbodrum escortbolu escortburdur escortburdur escortbursa escortbursam escortçeşme escortçorum escortdidim escortdiyarbakır escortdiyarbakır escorttekirdağ escorterzincan escorterzurum escorteskişehir escorteskişehir escortgiresun escortgiresun escorthatay escortısparta escortkastamonu escortkayseri escortkonya escortkuşadası escortkütahya escortmalatya escortmaraş escortmersin escortordu escortrize escortsamsun escortsivas escorttekirdağ escorttrabzon escortvan escortyalova escortyozgat escortzonguldak escortzonguldak escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerieskişehir escorteskişehir escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayeleriantep escortantep escortantep escortantep escortgiresun escortgiresun escortkars escortkars escortkastamonu escortkastamonu escortkastamonu escortkastamonu escortkayseri escortkayseri escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escorrtkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escortMadspot shellkıbrıs escortwso shellr57 shellkocaeli escortkocaeli escortkonya escortkonya escortMarlboro Touch GrayKent MentollüParliament Aqua BlueDjarum VanillaWinston Lightfree shopJagermeisterMarlboro ShuffleCaptain Black Dark CremaKent SwitchVosue FrissonMarlboro REDkocaeli escortkonya escortkuşadası escortkuşadası escortkütahya escortkütahya escortkütahya escortkütahya escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerimalatya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmanisa escortmanisa escortmanisa escortmaraş escortmaraş escortmardin escortmardin escortmardin escortmardin escortmardin escortmarmaris escortmarmaris escortmarmaris escortsex hikayelerimuğla escortmuğla escortmuğla escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortniğde escortniğde escortniğde escortordu escortniğde escortniğde escortordu escortordu escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayeleririze escortsakarya escortrize escortrize escortsakarya escortbursa escortsakarya escortsakarya escortsakarya escortsakarya escortsamsun escortsamsun escorturfa escorturfa escorturfa escortbursa escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisinop escortsinop escortsinop escortsinop escortsinop escortsivas escortsivas escortsivas escortsivas escortsex hikayeleritekirdağ escorttekirdağ escorttekirdağ escorttokat escorttokat escorttrabzon escorttrabzon escorttrabzon escorttrabzon escortsex hikayeleriurfa escorturfa escortuşak escortuşak escortuşak escortvan escortvan escortvan escortvan escortyalova escortyalova escortyalova escortyalova escortyozgat escortyozgat escortyozgat escorthostagor bypass shellsecure server bypass shell1xbetcanlı bahis oynawso shellısparta escortgebze escortizmit escortankara eve gelen escortetimesgut escortankara sınırsız escortbursa escort bayanWinston Dark BlueMuratti SigaraMarvel Party Mixfree shop sigaraataköy escortbahcelievler escortWinston SlenderMilano Ejectmersin escortizmir escortantalya escortankara escortOme Super Slim MentollüWinston Classic RedKent NanoKent Mentollü ÜrünlerimizLucky Strike MixMini MoodsBackwoods Islak PuroMonte Cristo Habanagorukle escortfree shop sigaramecidiyeköy escorthalkali escortbeşiktaş escortnişantaşı escortsefaköy escortKENT D RANGE BLUEr57 shellc99 shellgaziantep escort1xet girişsohbet numaralarıwso shellankara escortizmir escortantalya escortkonya escortdenizli escortkayseri escortdiyarbakir escortadana escortantep escortmersin escortadıyaman escortsakarya escortardahan escortağrı escortmalatya escortsamsun escort








Journal number 1 ∘ Manana KharkheliDavit Gavardashvili
The Need for Organizational Changes in Companies

In the context of globalization, it is becoming increasingly clear that implementing organizational change is a particular necessity for companies. The world is changing like lightning, the struggle between companies for dominance is intensifying, each company is trying to adapt to the new environmental conditions and take a firm position in the market; Therefore, it is necessary to make timely organizational changes. A company that ignores environmental variability and does not address organizational change is doomed to failure. In practice, in order for a company to overcome a crisis situation and achieve success, it must change.

Implementing organizational change is associated with certain difficulties; therefore, it requires effective management of the process. Effective management means using appropriate strategies and models for transformations. Management must be able to successfully make changes, as any action taken by them will affect both employees and customers. All of this will ultimately ensure the success of the company.

Organizational change is driven by a variety of factors. In some cases, changes in the environment have a positive effect. For example, technological development stimulates the company to make changes and innovate. Sometimes it negatively affects and restricts the activities of the company. Therefore, one of the main tasks of companies is to determine the driving force of change, to study comprehensively and to make the right decision.

The article discusses issues related to organizational change. The article describes the nature of organizational change, its types and the key elements that change can affect. In addition, the article discusses the drivers of change and the models through which transformations can be successfully implemented in companies. At the same time, the process of organizational change is analyzed on the example of a particular company.

Keywords: Management, organizational change, types of change, proactive and reactive behavior, models of change.

JEL Codes: D20, D21, D23

 

Introduction

 

In the era of technological development, processes are accelerating. The "rules of the game" are constantly changing in the business environment. Innovations are introduced, the competition between companies intensifies, and all this indicates that one, if not the only, correct and adequate action from businesses   is the timely implementation of organizational changes, which   require proper planning and  management.

The importance of organizational change has increased even more in today's conditions (Covid-19). Covid-pandemic has dealt a severe blow to the business environment. Companies suddenly faced a new challenge. Many of them closed, some continued to operate with delays, and some made changes and adapted to new environmental conditions.  Organizational change has become the most important mechanism for companies to survive and develop.

Organizational change is driven not only by external but also by internal environmental elements that determine a company's potential. With all this in mind, it is clear how important targeted organizational changes are for companies.

The aim of our research was to present organizational change as a vital and necessary tool in the activities of companies. Also, on the example of one of the Georgian companies, we discussed the organizational changes made by them and the  management of implemented changes.

 

The Nature of Organizational Change and Its Peculiarities

 

Before making changes, it is important for management to properly evaluate the environment in which it operates and plan everything carefully, as one wrong step can completely worsen a company's situation. They should be well aware that the precondition for implementing organizational change should be a sharply articulated sole idea that the transformation carried out should substantially improve the company's position.

It is necessary to clarify what is meant by organizational change. In general, change involves transforming one state of an object into another state when the initial state changes to a new, improved state. Such a change includes a change in technology, as well as a change in economic or other factors that affect the performance of companies. It all pushes them to adapt to new environmental conditions. To do this, companies undergo changes that are administrative and are considered as "organizational changes".

The explanations about organizational changes offered by various scholars are quite interesting. For example, organizational change is defined by Moran and Brightman as "the process of constantly updating an organization's direction, structure, and capabilities to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal users." (Moran & Brightman, 2000, pp. 66-74)

Organizational change can also be interpreted as "radical transformations in structures, personnel behavior, corporate values, and organizational arrangement." (Cummings & Worley, 2008, p. 506)

According to Garrett Jones, “Organizational change is the process by which organizations move from their current state to their desired state. The goal of planned organizational change is to find new or improved ways to use resources and opportunities to increase the efficiency of the company. ” (Jones, 2013, p. 273)

Thus, it is clear from the explanations offered by various scholars that they are not mutually exclusive but complementary. In practice, organizational change is the change of any particular element of the organization or the organization as a whole.

Companies apply organizational change for a variety of reasons. With this in mind, there are several types of changes:

  • Change for development

  • Transitional change

  • Transformational change (Anderson & Anderson, 2010, p. 60)

Change for development occurs when a company wants to further improve processes and the quality of work performed. With this change it tries to introduce technological novelties in advance and be prepared to meet the expected challenges in future.

Transitional changes are applied by the company when it needs to merge several functions to improve efficiency.

 Transformational change is a fundamental change in the business model, the main goal of it  is to make the right transformations in strategies and operations. Fundamental changes, at the same time, imply changes in staff behavior and thinking styles. For the most part, companies make fundamental changes when they go downhill and need to survive. Through transformational change, management seeks to revitalize the company.

Organizational change is usually aimed at improving efficiency in a variety of areas. Accordingly, transformations may relate to components such as:

  • Business model structure

  • Technologies

  • Human resources

  • Management structure

  • Organizational culture.

 These components are interdependent and often a change in one of the components directly affects the other elements as well.

                                                         

Factors Causing Organizational Change

 

There are various factors that cause organizational change: competition, legislation, technological development, economical conditions or other. All this forces companies to make changes themselves and adapt to environmental conditions. Sometimes change is forced, and sometimes management makes changes early to prevent it. 

Change is proactive when the company believes that change is desirable without any pressure, and reactive when change is caused by internal or external forces. (Pierce, Gardner, & Dunham, 2002, pp. 627-657)

As already mentioned, organizational changes are caused not only by external but also by internal factors. Changing elements such as mission, purpose, structure, tasks, technology and people significantly change the organization's "agenda". All of the above are closely related and it is often impossible to change one component without changing the other. For example, a change in mission can lead to changes in goals.

The structure is the most important element of the internal environment. In practice, a change in organizational structure indicates the formation of a different approach, rules of procedure and processes. There are symptoms that indicate the need to review the structure and make some changes. for example:

  • When the company's management fails to respond in a timely manner to     environmental conditions;

  • When management has difficulty delegating;

  • When there are fewer bottom-up initiatives;

  • When the series of actions is slow and decisions are difficult to make.

Thus, environmental conditions have a significant impact on the performance of companies. Consequently, management is required to study them, analyze each of them, and develop alternative variants of change. 

 

Models for Implementing Organizational Change

 

Organizational change, as already mentioned, is an integral part of companies' operations. Given the fact that processes in the world are constantly changing, managers are required to make timely and concrete changes. The main question at this time is which model can be used to implement the changes. Since companies are different from each other, there is no one specific model that will be universal for all companies. However, there are models developed by different scientists that are actively used in business practice.

Below we discuss some popular models.

  • John Cotter Change Management Model

  • ADKAR model

  • Model of Kurt Levine

  • Larry Greiner model

The John Cotter model includes 8 stages and each component pays particular attention to employees and their response to change. These components are:

  1. Convince employees of the need for change;

  2. Forming a team with the qualifications needed to implement change;

  3. Define future vision and strategies;

  4. Constant communication with staff;

  5. Creating appropriate conditions for active involvement of employees in the changes;

  6. Celebrating the success achieved;

  7. Strengthen the results and make the changes even more profound;

  8. Timely introduction of changes in corporate culture. (Kotter, 2012, 22-23)

The peculiarity of this model is that it is constantly focused on communicating with staff and preparing them for change.

The second model, which is also often used in companies, is the "ADKAR" model. This is especially useful for companies, as it focuses on both the goals of the company and its employees. It pays special attention to the support received from employees in the change process. The ADKAR model is coded as follows:

  • Awareness ,

  • Desire

  • Knowledge 

  • Ability

  • Reinforcement (Hiatt, 2006, 2),

Its main feature is to identify and evaluate the causes. The focus is on analyzing why the desired result is not being achieved, what is hindering the successful implementation of the changes.

One of the most popular models is the model developed by Kurt Levine, which consists of 3 main steps:

  1. “Defrosting”

  2. Implement changes

  3. “Freezing” (Lewin, 1951)

The initial stage – “thawing” - is a preparatory step for change. At this time it is important to actively communicate with employees and explain that changes are necessary. This action is aimed at making employees, on the one hand, aware of the change process and, on the other hand, weakening their resistance. The second stage begins when management makes sure there is a willingness on the team to make changes. At this time, the organization makes changes, introduces new rules, changes approaches or the type of activity. This enables the company to move from the status quo to the desired one. Once the company gets the desired look, the third stage begins – “freezing”, which is necessary to maintain the changes and improve its efficiency.

It is important to touch on the model developed by organizational behavior researcher Larry Greiner, which consists of 6 stages.

  1. Pressure and Encouragement - This initial stage indicates the need for change. Often, strong pressures cause particular concern about changes in the organization. Pressure can come from two sources. 1) from external factors and 2) from internal events such as low productivity, high costs, etc. All of this is easily seen by managers and during such periods they set sights on implementing changes.

  2. Intervention of external consultants - Although management may understand the need for change, there is no complete guarantee that they will see specific problems and take the right steps to address them. The result requires the intervention of external consultants who can objectively assess the situation and assist the company in making changes.

  3. Problem Identification - With the help of external consultants it is possible to identify specific problem areas. Problem identification starts at the top and moves down the organizational hierarchy. Once a problem is identified, senior management expresses readiness for change.

  4. New Decision and Commitment - Once a problem has been identified and acknowledged, it is important to develop an effective solution and make a specific commitment to implement it. Sometimes it is difficult to solve the problem with traditional solutions, so it is necessary to "invent" new and unique solutions.

  5. Experiment with new solutions - This stage represents a kind of "reality test" before large-scale change is introduced. At this stage, the validity of the decisions made in the 4th stage is checked. Decisions made at this stage are more seen as experiments rather than as final, irreversible solutions. 

  6. Adopt and strengthen change - One of the important goals of this phase is to convince the full staff of the organization of the need for change. In order for changes to be widely shared and have a positive outcome, employees are rewarded and encouraged. As a result, the employees themselves are trying to expand even further and continue to make changes. With such an approach, it is unlikely that organizations will return to past behavior. (Greiner, 1967)

Thus, it can be said that there are different models of change management. Despite their diversity, all of them are focused on the successful implementation of changes, the reduction of resistance from employees and the improvement of the overall condition of the company.



Analysis of Organizational Changes Implemented by 

JSC "Georgian Beer Company"

 

Organizational changes were interestingly implemented in the company we studied. Changes made by management have made the company one of the dominant players in the market today.

JSC "Georgian Beer Company" was founded in 2011 and has made many changes to date. Some of them were caused by external, some by the influence of internal factors. Initially, the company only covered the beer-lemonade market. However, it later made significant changes to its portfolio and is now represented in the market with wide range of beverages. This required a factory equipped with modern technologies, which was owned by the company, but to further improve technological , the "Georgian Beer Company" had to make some changes in this regard. In particular:

  • Completely upgraded the production system and introduced the German-class KHS and KRONES technologies;

  • Tap lines upgraded;

  • Electronic measurement-control system was installed;

  • Aseptic technology was introduced;

  • The laboratory was renovated, equipped with modern equipment.

For the changes, the company was awarded a quality management certificate - "ISO 9000" and a food safety management certificate - "ISO 22000".

Changes in the country's political / legal factors provoked changes in the Georgian Beer Company. For example, an increase in excise duty in 2015 reduced beer consumption by 35%, besides that drinking in public places was banned. This forced the company to make changes to its pricing policy. This was accompanied by a deterioration in the economic situation, which made a change in prices inevitable.

In 2017, the Georgian Beer Company also made a strategic change, expanding its operations and purchasing the natural juice factory "Chero" for 7 million. This move further strengthened positions in the market.

The company has made numerous changes to the product category. If until now it operated only in the beer-lemonade market, today it is presented with a wide range of products. In addition, it has obtained licenses from international brands and launched various categories of beverages under its own brand. All this has increased the annual productivity of the company and today, it produces 90 million liters in the category of alcoholic beverages and 200 million liters in non-alcoholic beverages.

The company has made changes in terms of marketing as well. Namely: in 2018-2019, the beer "Zedazeni" was rebranded, the label was changed, the bottle design was improved and the product was presented to the customer with a new campaign.

As you know, the crisis caused by the Covid-Pandemic affected many companies and the Georgian Beer Company was no exception. Although company found the crisis situation unprepared, management  acted quickly and actively began to make changes. It should also be noted that in practice Covid-Pandemic revealed where the Georgian Beer Company needed to make changes. The following changes were made during the Covid-Pandemic period:

  • ER ERP system was introduced - since the pandemic restricts the activities of employees, the company decided to make the processes fully automated, depending on the technological processes and not the staff.

  • From a strategic point of view, a change was made in export activities. Kovid-Pandemia made it clear that the local market was less purchasing power for it, hence the company decided to maximize sales to exports.

  • A change was made in the product as well. The company has launched a new beer under its own brand - "Cold-Cold".

  • Change in pricing policy as well. The cash-strapped fund significantly reduced the company's sales and revenue levels, making changes to product prices inevitable.

  • Covid-Pandemic made it necessary to make changes in the responsibilities and duties of the administration as well. The function of the administration to implement and control the recommendations imposed by the state has increased.

Through the changes made, "Georgian Beer Company" actively continues to operate in the market. Of course, change is accompanied by contradictions, but the company's management combines different strategies for change to eliminate it. First of all, the changes are discussed with employees before they are carried out. They are actively persuaded of the need for change and at the same time, employees are given the opportunity to participate in the implementation of the change themselves.

Georgian Beer Company has undergone many changes since its inception. The fact is that the changes made were successful. With the right management of the changes, the company was able to escape the crisis situation caused by the Covid-Pandemic and improve the situation.

 

Conclusion

 

In conclusion, we note that organizational change has become an integral part of managerial activities. Current trends in the world, the variability of elements of the internal and external environment constantly push companies to make timely and adequate changes. Each company is directed to adapt to world standards and improve the existing situation. This is natural and there is nothing surprising in that. If we consider the Covid-Pandemic, we notice that the significance of organizational change has increased even more. It has become the most important tool for escaping the crisis. The example of JSC "Georgian Beer Company" clearly shows how fundamental organizational changes  are in the activities of companies, how necessary it is to make timely and result-oriented changes.

It should also be noted that  effective management is crucial in the process of implementing change. Which means  management should be aware of many different models before they carry out changes in the company. As mentioned above, there is no one universal model, so the manager must decide for himself which of them to use in a particular situation. It all depends on the management skills, as well as the current situation and the complexity of the problem. Before making changes, the manager should have a good understanding of issues such as:

  • What changes are taking place in the external environment;

  • How necessary it is to make changes in the company;

  • Which component of the organization needs change and what impact will it have on other factors;

  • What will be the reaction of employees to the changes;

  • To what extent will the rules of employee activity be in line with the newly introduced changes;

  • At what time interval changes should be made;

  • How can the implemented changes be further strengthened.

By answering these questions, the manager creates a kind of action plan aimed at making successful changes.

 

References:

  • Anderson L. A., & Anderson D. (2010). The Change Leader's Roadmap: How to Navigate your Organization's Transformation. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. p60

  • Cummings T. G. & Worley C. G. (2008). Organization Development & Change (9th ed.). USA: South-Western Cengage Learning. p506 

  • Greiner L. E. (1967). Patterns of Organization Change. Harvard Business Review: Retrieved from https://hbr.org/1967/05/patterns-of-organization-change

  • Hiatt J. M. (2006). ADKAR: a Model for Change in Business, Government and our Community. USA, Colorado: Prosci Research Loveland. p2

  • Jones G. R. (2013). Organizational Theory, Design, and Change (7th ed.). USA: Pearson. p273 

  • Kotter J. P. (2012). Leading Change. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press. p22-23

  • Lewin K. (1951). Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.

  • Moran J. W. & Brightman B. K. (2000). Leading Organizational Change. Journal of Workplace Learning , 12 (2), p66-74

  • Pierce J. L., Gardner D. & Dunham R. B. (2002). Management and Organizational Behavior; An Integrated Perspective. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing. p627-657