English / ქართული /
bahçe dekorasyonu evde ek gelir eskişehir haber sondakika haberleri magazin haberleri seo sorgulama site analiz seo analiz google sıra bulucu backlink sorgulama sunucu tarama çekiliş çekiliş sitesi Who is html kod şifreleme seo hacklink hacklink satış hacklink panel youtube video indir instagram video indir facebook video indir wso shell php shell hacklink hacklink panel hızlı seo hacklink seo nedir wso shell instagram takipçi hilesi instagram takipçi hilesi
kuvvet macunusertleştirici hap isimlerieczane geciktirici hapsertleştirici haplarmarmaris escortcaptain black sigaradjarum blackMarlboro Double Fusionmarlboro shufflemarlboro double fusionmarlboro double fusionbets10 girisbetboo girisbahsegel girisbetist girismarlboro shufflecaptain black sigaraCamel WhiteEsse BlackCaptain Black BlueMarlboro Double FusionMarlboro ShuffleMilano EjectKENT D RANGE BLUEMore Sigara Kırmızı PaketLucky Strike Double ClickMarlboro Touch GrayWinston Dark BlueRothmans SigaraPall Mall Switch MentollüCavallo By Vasily Vinteroff MentollüWinston SlenderKent SwitchKent Mix Aroma SigaraMarlboro Double Fusion Summer KarpuzMarlboro Double FusionMarlboro Double MixDuty Free ShopDjarum VanillaKent MentollüMarlboro Touch AquaHEETSMarlboro TouchDjarum BlackMarlboro Goldcaptain blackParliament Aqua BlueCaptain Black sigaraParliament Night BlueKent SwitchDjarum BlackCaptain Black Darm CremaOlmeca TekilaJack Daniels Tennessee HoneyChivas Regal ViskiAmarula LikörAbsnithe Yeşil Perifree shopfree shop sigaracaptain black puroCaptain Black Bluefree shopmarlboro double fusiondjarum blackcaptain blackcaptain black sigaramarmaris escortcaptain black sigaracaptain blackdjarum blackdjarum blackmarlboro double fusioncaptain blackmarlboro double fusionfree shop sigarakent mentollüCaptain Black Dark CremaMarvel Compact Party MixMarlboro Double Fusion Summer Karpuzkent d range blueMarlboro ShuffleParliament Night BlueCaptain Black Sigarasupertotobet girisvdcasino girisMarlboro Double Fusiontipobet365 girisLucky strikekent switchparliament night bluemarlboro redmarlboro shuffleizmit escortkocaeli escortescort bursabursa escortgörükle escortbursa escortbursa merkez escortizmit escort bayanmini shellwso shellcgi telnetwso shellindoxploit shellsivas escortdüzce escortaksaray escorturfa escortbatman escortvan escortkarabük escortyalova escortredwin giristrabzon escortdiyarbakır escorttekirdağ escortsamsun escortmarlboro double fusionCaptain Black Bluesakarya escortniğde escortordu escortdjarum blackcaptain blacknevşehir escortmuğla escortkent switchmardin escortmaraş escortmalatya escortmanisa escortkütahya escortkonya escortizmit escortgebze escortısparta escortçorum escortkayseri escortkocaeli escorthatay escortantep escorteskişehir escorterzurum escortedirne escortçanakkale escortdenizli escortbursa escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortantalya escortafyon escortadana escortyozgat escortzonguldak escortyalova escorttunceli escortvan escortuşak escorttokat escortşırnak escortsinop escortsiirt escortrize escortniğde escortosmaniye escortnevşehir escortkütahya escortkırklareli escortkırşehir escortmuş escortkırıkkale escortkilis escortkastamonu escortkaraman escortkars escortkarabük escortizmit escortısparta escortığdır escorthakkari escortgümüşhane escortistanbul escortgiresun escortelazığ escortgebze escorterzincan escortedirne escortdüzce escortçankırı escortçanakkale escortçorum escortburdur escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbitlis escortbolu escortbayburt escortbartın escortartvin escortardahan escortbatman escortantalya escortağrı escortafyon escortamasya escortaksaray escortadıyaman escortmanisa escortçerkezköy escortçorlu escortsivas escortizmir escortbalıkesir escorthatay escorterzurum escorturfa escortsamsun escorttrabzon escorttekirdağ escortsakarya escortmuğla escortordu escortadana escortbursa escortantep escortdenizli escortaydın escortankara escortdiyarbakır escortmardin escortkonya escortmalatya escorteskişehir escortmaraş escortmersin escortkayseri escortkocaeli escortistanbul escortşişli escort bayanşişli bayan escortmecidiyeköy escortşişli escortizmir escortantalya escortsakarya escorthaymana escortgölbaşı escortkeçiören escortmamak escortpolatlı escortescort bayaneskort ankaragörükle escortnilüfer escortantalya escortsakarya escortizmir escortAn0n 3xPloiTeRBase 64 EncodeIndoSec Shellmobilbahis giriscavallo sigaracavallo sigaramarlboro touch aquacaptain black puroizmir escortankara escortmersin escorteskişehir escortgaziantep escortsakarya escortkayseri escortantalya escortistanbul escortbursa escortadana escortdenizli escortavcılar escortbüyükçekmece escortümraniye escortbakırköy escortkurtköy escortsamsun escortkadıköy escortkartal escortşirinevler escortbeylikdüzü escortşişli escortyalova escortataşehir escortbahçeşehir escortbahçelievler escortmecidiyeköy escortfatih escortbeşiktaş escortbağcılar escortkonya escortbaşakşehir escortnişantaşı escortelazığ escortpendik escorthalkalı escortkocaeli escortdiyarbakır escortesenyurt escorttuzla escortgebze escortizmit eskortCaptain Black Bluecialis nedircialis fiyatıcialiscialiscialis siparişonline cialiscialis ilaccialis ilaccialis satın alcialis fiyatcialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialissertlesme sorunuerkeklerde sertlesmecialiscialis alcialis 100 mgcialis 20 mgcialis 20 mgcialiscialis 5 mgcialis 5 mgcialis 20 mgtadalafilcialis 100 mgcialiscialiscialiscialis nedirereksiyoncialis ilaccialiscialiscialis 5 mgcialiscialis satin alcialis fiyatlaricialis yan etkicialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialiscialis 100 mgadall fotosellihasta yatağıepoksibftmedilab aestheticmedilabseobridge istanbulnice türkiyeviagra nedirviagra fiyatviagra fiyatviagra kullanı mıviagra yan etkileriviagra satın alviagra nedirviagra eczanesildenafilviagra yan etkileriviagra kullanımıviagra satın alviagra fiyatısildenafil fiyatıviagra fiyatıviagra fiyatı 2022 eczaneviagra fiyatları 2022viagra siparişviagraviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatviagraviagra fiyatlariviagra 100 mgviagra kremviagra siparişviagra eczane fiyatıviagra 50 mgviagra eczaneviagra fiyativiagra satisviagra fiyatviagra 100 mgviagra 100 mgviagra 100 mgviagra satisviagra fiyatıviagra eczaneviagra fiyatlarıviagraviagraankara escortAnkara rus escortankara escortankara escort bayanSincan escortankara escortEscort ankaraAnkara escort kızlarSincan escort bayanEscort sincanEryaman escortEryaman escort bayanEscort eryamanKeçiören EscortKeçiören escort bayanEtlik escortEtlik escort bayanÇankaya escortÇankaya escort bayanKızılay escortKızılay escort bayanantalya escortantalya escort bayanEscort antalyaantalya escortantalya escort bayanEscort antalyaankara escortankara escort bayanEscort ankaramucize kremsakal serumuegzama şampuanıescort bursaseboreik dermatit şampuanegzama için şampuankeratin serumpriligy 60 mg fiyatıdapoksetin fiyatıpriligy 30 mg fiyatıpriligy fiyatyapay kızlık zarıtitan jeldelay spreytitan jelgeciktirici hapcialis fiyatcialis 100 mgviagra fiyatıpenis büyütücü kremhacklink satışetlik escortemek escortulus escortdemetevler escortdikmen escortsincan escorteryaman escorteczanelerde satılan sertleştiricilerAtaşehir escortŞerifali escortÜmraniye escortGöztepe escortAnadolu yakası escortAtaşehir escortKadıköy escortBostancı escortKadıköy escortÜmraniye escortBostancı escortAnadolu yakası escortAtaşehir escortKüçükyalı escortİçerenköy escortAnadolu Yakası escortAtaşehir escortAtaşehir escortKadıköy escortBostancı escortKozyatağı escortAcıbadem escortÜmraniye escortataşehir escortkadıköy escortbostancı escortümraniye escortkartal escortmaltepe escortpendik escortkurtköy escortanadolu yakası escortataşehir escort bayanbostancı escortkadıköy escortpendik escortkartal escortümraniye escortgöztepe escorttuzla escortmaltepe escortkurtköy escortmaltepe escortkurtköy escort bayankartal escort bayananadolu yakası escortpendik escort bayancanli bahis oynagaziantep escortmersin escortsohbet numaralarıtyrone unblocked gamessohbet hattıadana escortadana escortadana escortkayseri escortpendik escortdeneme bonusukurtköy escortkurtköy escortgaziantep escorttuzla escortsohbet numaralarıpendik escortmaltepe escortbedava bonus veren bahis sitelerikartal escortdeneme bonusu veren bahis sitelerianadolu yakası escortAnadolu Yakası Escortanadolu yakası escortmaltepe escortpendik escortanadolu yakası escortgöztepe escortkartal escortkurtköy escortkadıköy escortanadolu yakası escortümraniye escortbostancı escortataşehir escortKent Switchjetbahis girismarlboro ice bluebostancı escortkurtköy escortkartal escortümraniye escortmaltepe escortpendik escortanadolu yakası escortanadolu yakası escortmaltepe escorttuzla escortanadolu yakası escortAtaşehir Escortanadolu yakası escortataşehir escortkadıköy escortAvcılar EscortArnavutköy EscortAtaköy Escortataşehir escortZeytinburnu EscortYeşilköy EscortSuadiye EscortTaksim EscortŞişman EscortTopkapı EscortYenibosna EscortÜmraniye EscortÜsküdar EscortSınırsız EscortŞişli EscortSilivri EscortŞirinevler Escortseks hikayeleriadana escortadana escortadana escortadana escortafyon escortafyon escortafyon escortafyon escortağrı escortseks hikayeleriağrı escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortalanya escortantalya escortantalya escortalanya escortalanya escortantep escortantalya escortartvin escortartvin escortantep escortartvin escortaydın escortseks hikayeleriartvin escortantalya escortkonya escortbalıkesir escortmersin escortaydın escortartvin escortordu escortbeylikdüzü escortbolu escortbeylikdüzü escortrize escortbodrum escortbeylikdüzü escortbolu escortbodrum escortbolu escortbeylikdüzü escortburdur escortburdur escortçanakkale escortburdur escortbodrum escortbodrum escortbursa escortbursa escortçanakkale escortbursa escortbolu escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçeşme escortçanakkale escortçeşme escortcanakkale escortçeşme escortçeşme escortçorum escortdenizli escortçorum escortyozgat escortdenizli escortdidim escortdidim escortdidim escortyalova escortdiyarbakır escorturfa escorttunceli escortuşak escorttrabzon escortdidim escortvan escortsivas escortdiyarbakır escortdiyarbakır escortzonguldak escortdüzce escorttokat escorttekirdağ escortşırnak escortdüzce escortedirne escortsinop escortdüzce escortedirne escortsiirt escortedirne escortsamsun escortedirne escortsakarya escortelazığ escortrize escortedirne escortosmaniye escortelazığ escortordu escortelazığ escortmuş escortelazığ escortniğde escortelazığ escortnevşehir escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzincan escorterzincan escortmuğla escortmersin escortmaraş escorterzincan escortmardin escorterzurum escorterzincan escorterzurum escortmanisa escortkonya escorterzurum escortmalatya escorteskişehir escorterzurum escortkütahya escortkocaeli escorterzurum escortkırıkkale escorrtağrı escortkırklareli escortadana escortkırşehir escortafyon escortantalya escortantep escortantalya escortkilis escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escortkastamonu escortbalıkesir escortaydın escortadana escortartvin escortafyon escortantalya escortbeylikdüzü escortbalıkesir escortbodrum escortbodrum escortbolu escortgiresun escortgiresun escortkaraman escortkarabük escortkars escortizmit escortısparta escortistanbul escortizmir escortgiresun escortsex hikayelerigümüşhane escortığdır escorthakkari escorthatay escortgümüşhane escorthatay escorthatay escortgümüşhane escorthatay escortgümüşhane escortsex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayelerisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesisex hikayesiısparta escortısparta escortısparta escortısparta escortmalatya escortsex hikayesihacklink satışVhosts Bypass shellwebadmin.php shellk2ll33d shellhtml kod şifrelemehtml code encryptionistanbul escortkurtköy escortşişli escortmecidiyeköy escortistanbul escortbodrum escortbodrum escortkurtköy escortpendik escortbeşiktaş escortesenyurt escortbeylikdüzü escortcevizlibağ escorteminönü escortçağlayan escortbeyoğlu escortbayrampaşa escortavrupa yakası escortbomonti escortflorya escortbebek escortesenler escortbodrum escortantalya escortankara escortbeylikdüzü escortbeşiktaş escortantalya escortistanbul escortadana escortdedektiftravestibodrum escortescort bodrumbodrum escortadana escortafyon escortadıyaman escortağrı escortantalya escortaydın escortamasya escortbartın escortankara escortbatman escortardahan escortaksaray escortbalıkesir escortartvin escortbilecik escortbayburt escortbingöl escortbitlis escortçankırı escortedirne escortdenizli escortçanakkale escortelazığ escortdiyarbakır escortburdur escortbolu escortdüzce escorterzurum escortçorum escortbursa escorterzincan escorteskişehir escortgaziantep escorthakkari escortizmir escortgümüşhane escortkars escortistanbul escortgebze escortkırıkkale escortgiresun escortkilis escortkastamonu escortığdır escorthatay escortısparta escortkırklareli escortkarabük escortkıbrıs escortkaraman escortkayseri escortkırşehir escortmersin escortkocaeli escortmuş escortsamsun escortmuğla escortsiirt escortnevşehir escortordu escortkütahya escortmanisa escortmalatya escortniğde escortosmaniye escortsinop escortmaraş escortmardin escortrize escortkonya escortsakarya escortşırnak escortsivas escorttokat escortvan escortyalova escortyozgat escortalanya escorttekirdağ escorturfa escortdidim escortzonguldak escortuşak escorttunceli escorttrabzon escortkuşadası escortfethiye escortmanavgat escortçankaya escortselçuklu escortyenimahalle escorttorbalı escortetimesgut escortküçükçekmece escortkeçiören escortşahinbey escortbahçelievler escortosmangazi escortbaşakşehir escortyalıkavak escortuludağ escorttorba escorttarsus escorttürkbükü escortside escortsöke escortsilifke escortselimiye escortserdivan escortşile escortseferihisar escortselçuk escortşarköy escortsarıgerme escortsapanca escortreyhanlı escortortaca escortodunpazarı escortölüdeniz escortmudanya escortmilas escortmenemen escortmenderes escortmarmaris escortmanavgat escortlüleburgaz escortlara escortmalkara escortlapseki escortkuşadası escortkumluca escortkundu escortköyceğiz escortkonyaaltı escortkumla escortkonak escortkırıkhan escortkaş escortkemer escortkeşan escortkartepe escortkarasu escortkapadokya escortislahiye escortkaraburun escortiskenderun escortinegöl escortiğneada escortgüvercinlik escortgümbet escortiçmeler escortgüllük escortgöynük escortGörükle EscortGölcük Escortgöcek escortgelibolu escortfinike escortgazipaşa escortfethiye escorteryaman escorterdemli escortezine escortenez escortedremit escorterdek escortdörtyol escortdidim escortdikili escortdatça escortdemre escortdalyan escortşehitkamil escortbağcılar escortsultangazi escortsincan escortpendik escortmaltepe escortümraniye escortavcılar escortbergama escortesenler escortantakya escortkartal escortbornova escortkarşıyaka escortiskenderun escortizmit escortbeylikdüzü escortataşehir escortgaziemir escortnarlıdere escortarnavutköy escorttuzla escortüsküdar escortesenyurt escortnazilli escortmarmaris escortbeşiktaş escortsancaktepe escortbeyoğlu escortbeykoz escortşişli escortsarıyer escortzeytinburnu escortgaziosmanpaşa escortkağıthane escortçekmeköy escortfatih escortbayrampaşa escortkonak escortbuca escortbodrum escortalsancak escortantalya escortadıyaman escortadana escortdiyarbakır escorterzurum escortaksaray escortbitlis escortkadıköy escortbalıkesir escortbatman escortçeşme escortafyon escortburdur escorthatay escortmuğla escortkastamonu escortgiresun escortgebze escortbursa escortkonya escortmalatya escortniğde escortkilis escortısparta escortsakarya escortkarabük escortedirne escortgaziantep escorteskişehir escortkütahya escortordu escortsamsun escorttokat escortmersin escortsiirt escortsincan escorttekirdağ escortosmaniye escortmardin escorturfa escortmaraş escortuşak escortmanisa escortvan escortescortyalova escortturgutreis escortyozgat escortzonguldak escortPendik EscortMerter EscortOlgun EscortOrtaköy EscortNişantaşı EscortMaslak EscortMahmutbey EscortMecidiyeköy EscortMaltepe EscortLevent EscortKurtköy EscortKüçükyalı EscortKüçükçekmece EscortKartal Escortfulya escortfındıkzade escorthalkalı escortgebze escortgüngören escorteyüp escortfikirtepe escortferiköy escortgöztepe escortGalata Escortfirüzköy escortfanerbahçe escortfatih escortesentepe escortetiler escortesenyalı escortedirnekapi escortdudullu escorterenköy escortdavutpaşa escorthalıcıoğlu escorthaliç escortgüzelyurt escortgöktürk escortgürpınar escortgüneşli escortçubuklu escortgültepe escortçırpıcı escortcihangir escortcevizli escortçengelköy escortçekmeköy escortçavuşbaşı escortçapa escortçamlıca escortçakmak escortcaddebostan escortbüyükçekmece escortbeylerbeyi escortbulgurlu escortbeykoz escortbeyazıt escortbatışehir escortbaşakşehir escortbostancı escortbalmumcu escortbalat escortbahçelievler escortbakırköy escortbahçeşehir escortavcılar escortbağlarbaşı escortataşehir escortbağcılar escortateştuğla escortatalar escortataköy escortataakent escortarnavutköy escortaltunizade escortalibeyköy escortaksaray escortağva escortacıbadem escortKağıthane Escortİkitelli EscortFatih Escortkadıköy escortEtiler EscortErenköy EscortGöztepe EscortHaramidere EscortKadıköy EscortÇağlayan EscortGenç EscortBüyükçekmece EscortHalkalı EscortFındıkzade EscortEscort Numaralarıİstanbul EscortFlorya EscortÇapa Escortçorum escortçankırı escortçanakkale escortbursa escortdenizli escortdiyarbakır escortelazığ escortedirne escortdüzce escortburdur escortgiresun escorteskişehir escorterzincan escortbolu escortbitli escortbingöl escorterzurum escortbilecik escortbayburt escortbatman escortbartın escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortartvin escortardahan escortantalya escortantep escortankara escortankara escortaksaray escortamasya escortağrı escortafyon escortadıyaman escortsex hikayeleriteknoloji haberlerigüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberleradana escortgüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerpendik escortkurtköy escortbakirkoy escortbesiktas escorttaksim escortcaglayan escortcevizlibag escortkurtkoy escortgungoren escortbahcelievler escorteminonu escortescort istanbulbomonti escortbeyoglu escortbeykoz escortbeyazit escortatasehir escortbebek escortbayrampasa escortbasaksehir escortbalmumcu escortbahcesehir escortbahcelievler escortbahcekoy escortbahariye escortatasehir escortatakent escortarnavutkoy escortalibeykoy escortanal escortacibadem escortadalar escortadapazari escortpendik escortalibeykoy escortaltinsehir escortduty free shopEsenyurt EscortEscort Bayanlarçekmeköy escortElit EscortÇıtır Escortşerifali escortsuadiye escortüsküdar escortCihangir Escortgöztepe escortbostancı escortCevizli EscortBostancı Escortgöztepe escortbostancı escorterenköy escortBeyoğlu EscortCennet Mahallesi Escortümraniye escortbursa eskortbursa ucuz escortbursa escort bayanbodrum escortbiotin fiyatsaç vitaminilifta 5 mg 28 tablet en ucuz fiyatlifta 5 mg 28 tablet eczane fiyatıcialis 5 mg 28 tablet fiyatlifta 5 mg 28 tablet fiyatlifta 5 mg fiyatcialis 5 mg fiyatlifta 20 mg fiyatpriligy fiyateczanelerde satılan sertleştiricilerpriligy 30 mg fiyatıcialis 20 mg kullanıcı yorumlarıgeciktirici hap eczanegeciktirici sprey eczanelifta 20 mg yorumlarlifta 5 mg 28 tablet kullanıcı yorumlarıcialis kullananlardapoksetin fiyatılifta 5 mg 28 tablet fiyatizmir escorteskişehir escortantalya escortankara escortfethiye escortmersin escortkocaeli escortgaziemir escortdikili escortselçuk escortaliağa escortayvalık escortdidim escortkuşadası escortfethiye escortmarmaris escortbodrum escortçeşme escortkarabağlar escortgaziemir escortbornova escortkonak escortalsancak escortbuca escortkarşıyaka escortgüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerkadın haberlerigüncel haberlergüncel haberlerguncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerspor haberlerikadın haberleriyemek tarifleriteknoloji haberleriyemek tarifleriyemek tarifleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberleriteknoloji haberlerifutbol haberlerispor haberlerikadın haberlerispor haberleriekonomi haberleriekomomi haberleriekonomi haberlerispor haberlerispor haberlerisağlık haberlerisağlık haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberlerikadın haberleriigüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerteknoloji haberlerigüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlergüncel haberlerekonomi haberleriekonomi haberleriekonomi haberlerigüncel haberleroyun haberlerioyun haberlerispor haberleriavrupa yakası escortsuadiye escortanadolu yakası escortBeylikdüzü EscortBeşiktaş Escortanadolu yakası escortBayrampaşa EscortBaşakşehir Escortümraniye escortatalar escortBakırköy EscortBağcılar EscortAnadolu Yakası Escortataşehir escortbostancı escortümraniye escortBahçelievler EscortAvrupa Yakası Escortbostancı escortkadıköy escortmaltepe escortcevizli escortkartal escortBağdat Caddesi Escortkurtköy escortÜmraniye EscortSilivri EscortTaksim EscortSarıyer EscortZeytinburnu EscortSultangazi EscortÜsküdar EscortAcıbadem EscortSuadiye EscortTopkapı EscortYakacık EscortTuzla EscortSancaktepe EscortŞirinevler Escortpendik escortmaltepe escortAvcılar Escortataşehir escortPendik EscortMerter EscortGöztepe EscortAksaray EscortMecidiyeköy EscortŞişli Escortaydınlı escortanadolu yakası escortKartal EscortBüyükçekmece Escortkadıköy escortAtalar EscortAtaşehir EscortAtaköy EscortMaltepe Escortİstanbul Escortİkitelli Escortümraniye escortKadıköy EscortHalkalı EscortGüngören EscortKurtköy Escortİçerenköy Escortistanbul escortmalatya escortelazığ escortantalya escortadana escortbursa escortbatman escortantep escortkocaeli escortdiyarbakır escortkayseri escortanadolu yakası escortmutlukent escortEsenyurt Escortgebze escortEsenler EscortGebze EscortCennet Mahallesi Escorttuzla escorthatay escortEtiler Escortsamsun escortankara escortdenizli escortkonya escort bayansakarya escorteskişehir escortizmir escorterzurum escortkuşadası escortadana escortağrı escortmaraş escortosmaniye escortkaraman escortbayburt escortkarabük escortkars escortbingöl escortsiirt escortniğde escorttunceli escortkastamonu escortaksaray escortyalova escortmuş escortamasya escortnevşehir escortvan escortuşak escortbatman escorttekirdağ escortbitlis escortdüzce escortadapazarı escortbolu escortsakarya escortçanakkale escortısparta escorttrabzon escortamasya escortyalova escortkarşiyaka escorttekirdağ escortkırklareli escortkırıkkale escortsinop escortgaziemir escortçankırı escortkırsehir escortkuşadası escortkaraman escortartvin escortkarabük escortkastamonu escortrize escortyozgat escortgiresun escortniğde escorterzurum escortçorum escortordu escortelazığ escortmaraş escortaydın escortmardin escortvan escorturfa escortaksaray escortburdur escortçeşme escortelazığ escortkütahya escortardahan escortmardin escortedirne escortçankırı escortrize escorterzincan escortordu escortburgaz escortçorum escortığdır escortçorlu escorthatay escorteskişehir escortbursa escortaydın escortçanakkale escortdenizli escortkonya escortbilecik escortizmit escortalanya escortyozgat escortburdur escortkütahya escortuşak escorttrabzon escorthatay escortkıbrıs escortbalıkesir escortmuğla escortalanya escortmutlu son masajÇatalca Escortanadolu yakası escortadıyamanescortbodrum escortbartın escortafyon escorttokat escortaksaray escortkırıkkale escorturfa escortzonguldak escortsinop escortvan escorttrabzon escortmaltepe escortyozgat escortkurtköy escort bayanBeylikdüzü Escortpendik escortBostancı EscortBayrampaşa Escortcorum escortkütahya escortBakırköy Escorttekirdağ escortBeykoz Escorturfa escortaydın escortpendik escort bayanmanisa escortbostancı escortçanakkale escortmardin escortyalova escortgiresun escortosmaniye escortkurtköy escortbalıkesir escortafyon escortmuğla escortedirne escorterzurum escortmanisa escorttokat escortantalya escortordu escortataköy escorttaksim escortgaziosmanpaşa escorteyüp escortbebek escortlevent escortetiler escortsarıyer escortbayrampaşa escortesenler escortüsküdar escortbeyoğlu escortarnavutköy escortsancaktepe escortbeykoz escortküçükçekmece escortzeytinburnu escorttrabzon escortmalatya escortdjarum black karanfildjarum black satın almarlboro touchmuratti sigaracamel sigarakent mentollüKent Mix böğürtlenliParliament Night Bluemarlboro double fusionWinston Dark Blueankara escortağrı escortaydın escortbostancı escortkağıthane escortamasya escortiçerenköy escortkozyatağı escortkıbrıs escortmerter escortortaköy escorterenköy escortşaşkınbakkal escortçekmeköy escortsultançiftliği escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortvan escortuşak escorttunceli escortardahan escortmaraş escorturfa escortsivas escortgiresun escortkartal escort bayanyakacık escortBahçeşehir Escortnice yetkili serviskartal escortBahçelievler Escortkadıköy escortAvrupa Yakası Escortartvin escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escorttokat escortbayburt escortbilecik escortbingöl escorttekirdağ escortsivas escortşırnak escortsinop escortrize escortsiirt escortosmaniye escortbitlis escortordu escortniğde escortnevşehir escortmuş escortmuğla escortmardin escortmanisa escortkütahya escortkırşehir escortkırklareli escortkırıkkale escortkilis escortkastamonu escortkars escortkarabük escortbolu escortburdur escortçanakkale escortmaraş escortısparta escortKent Switchfree shopDjarum Blackkent switchMarlboro Shufflecaptain blackMarlboro Touchfree shop alkolmarlboro touch blueMarlboro Touch Graymilano sigaracaptain black sigara fiyatığdır escortçankırı escorthatay escortçorum escortgümüşhane escortgiresun escorterzurum escorterzincan escortedirne escortdüzce escortankara escortescort ankaraçankaya escortadana escortkurtköy escortKurtköy EscortEscort KurtköyKurtkoy Escort BayanKurtkoy Escortdavidoff gold slenderdjarum black vişneWinston Lightcaptain blackcialismentollü sigaraWinston SlenderKENT D-RANGE BLUEMilano EjectCaptain Black Bluefree shop sigarafree shopMarlboro Double FusionCaptain Black SigaraMarlboro Double FusionMarlboro ShuffleMarlboro Double Fusioncaptain black sigaraKent SwitchCaptain Blackmarlboro gold touchmarlboro touch aquacaptain black satın alesse blackLucky Strike MixMarlboro Touch Aquadjarum black satın alMarlboro Double FusionKent Mixkent d range blueDjarum BlackLucky Strike Mix 4 AromalıOlmeca Tekiladjarum blackKent Switch MentollüGENTLEMAN JACKWinston LightWinston SlenderWinston Dark BlueWinston Light SigaraMarvel PipersVosue FrissonOme Super Slim MentollüMarlboro Double Fusion Summer Karpuzparliament night blueKent SlimROTMANS SigaraMarlboro Gold TouchMarlboro GoldKent Switchfree shop alkolCaptain Black Darm CremaMarlboro Double FusionMeharisKent SwitchBackwoods Islak PuroMarlboro RED KırmızıVosue FrissonKENT D RANGE BLUEDavidoff Gold SlenderCaptain Blackfree shopWinston Slenderescort bayanmersinescortDavidoff SigaraGENTLEMAN JACKChivas RegalMarlboro Gold Touchfree shopmarlboro touchKENT D-RANGE BLUEDavidoff SigaraCavallo By Vasily Vinteroff MentollüMarvel Compact Party MixDjarum VanillaAlcapone Sigaracamel brownkent slimRothmans SigaraColts Red Deluxe Vişne SigaraTekel 2001Djarum BlackLucky Strike Double ClickKent MentollüMarlboro Double MixDuty Free ShopWinston Classic Red SigaraPall Mall Switch MentollüRothmans SigaraLucky Strikefree shop alkolParliament Aqua BlueMarlboro TouchMarlboro Touch AquaDjarum VanilyaDuty Free ShopAmarula LikörAbsnithe Yeşil PeriDavidoff Gold SlenderParliament Night Bluecaptain blackMarlboro Touch AquaMarlboro Double Fusion SummerMarlboro Touch AquaTekirdağ Rakı Çeşitleriolmeca tekilaDjarum BlackParliament Night BlueMarlboro Double Fusion Summer KarpuzWinston Dark BlueDavidoff SigaraCaptain Black BlueMarvel Compact Party MixMarlboro Gold Touchfree shop puroMilano EjectEsse BlackROTMANS SigaraMore Sigara KırmızıMarlboro Touch GrayRothmans SigaraToscanello Puroşişli escortmecidiyeköy escortMarlboro RED KırmızıKent MentollüMarlboro Double BurstMarlboro Double Fusion Summer Karpuzmarvel sigaraspor haberlerizonguldak escortzonguldak escortzonguldak escortsex hikayeleriyozgat escortmalatya escortkars escortdenizli escortmanisa escortmersin escorttokat ecsortbeylikdüzü escortbodrum escortbolu escortburdur escortburdur escortbursa escortbursam escortçeşme escortçorum escortdidim escortdiyarbakır escortdiyarbakır escorttekirdağ escorterzincan escorterzurum escorteskişehir escorteskişehir escortgiresun escortgiresun escorthatay escortısparta escortkastamonu escortkayseri escortkonya escortkuşadası escortkütahya escortmalatya escortmaraş escortmersin escortordu escortrize escortsamsun escortsivas escorttekirdağ escorttrabzon escortvan escortyalova escortyozgat escortzonguldak escortzonguldak escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerieskişehir escorteskişehir escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayeleriantep escortantep escortantep escortantep escortgiresun escortgiresun escortkars escortkars escortkastamonu escortkastamonu escortkastamonu escortkastamonu escortkayseri escortkayseri escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escorrtkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escortMadspot shellkıbrıs escortwso shellr57 shellkocaeli escortkocaeli escortkonya escortkonya escortMarlboro Touch GrayKent MentollüParliament Aqua BlueDjarum VanillaWinston Lightfree shopJagermeisterMarlboro ShuffleCaptain Black Dark CremaKent SwitchVosue FrissonMarlboro REDkocaeli escortkonya escortkuşadası escortkuşadası escortkütahya escortkütahya escortkütahya escortkütahya escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerimalatya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmanisa escortmanisa escortmanisa escortmaraş escortmaraş escortmardin escortmardin escortmardin escortmardin escortmardin escortmarmaris escortmarmaris escortmarmaris escortsex hikayelerimuğla escortmuğla escortmuğla escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortniğde escortniğde escortniğde escortordu escortniğde escortniğde escortordu escortordu escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayeleririze escortsakarya escortrize escortrize escortsakarya escortbursa escortsakarya escortsakarya escortsakarya escortsakarya escortsamsun escortsamsun escorturfa escorturfa escorturfa escortbursa escortsex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisex hikayelerisinop escortsinop escortsinop escortsinop escortsinop escortsivas escortsivas escortsivas escortsivas escortsex hikayeleritekirdağ escorttekirdağ escorttekirdağ escorttokat escorttokat escorttrabzon escorttrabzon escorttrabzon escorttrabzon escortsex hikayeleriurfa escorturfa escortuşak escortuşak escortuşak escortvan escortvan escortvan escortvan escortyalova escortyalova escortyalova escortyalova escortyozgat escortyozgat escortyozgat escorthostagor bypass shellsecure server bypass shell1xbetcanlı bahis oynawso shellısparta escortgebze escortizmit escortankara eve gelen escortetimesgut escortankara sınırsız escortbursa escort bayanWinston Dark BlueMuratti SigaraMarvel Party Mixfree shop sigaraataköy escortbahcelievler escortWinston SlenderMilano Ejectmersin escortizmir escortantalya escortankara escortOme Super Slim MentollüWinston Classic RedKent NanoKent Mentollü ÜrünlerimizLucky Strike MixMini MoodsBackwoods Islak PuroMonte Cristo Habanagorukle escortfree shop sigaramecidiyeköy escorthalkali escortbeşiktaş escortnişantaşı escortsefaköy escortKENT D RANGE BLUEr57 shellc99 shellgaziantep escort1xet girişsohbet numaralarıwso shellankara escortizmir escortantalya escortkonya escortdenizli escortkayseri escortdiyarbakir escortadana escortantep escortmersin escortadıyaman escortsakarya escortardahan escortağrı escortmalatya escortsamsun escort








Journal number 1 ∘ Vladimer Basaria
Sharing Economy and Its Role in the Production of Public Wealth

The article discusses the specific nature of public good and its general benefit in optimal volumes; the reasons for the need to produce a public product by the state; the role of the private sector in creating a public product and enhancing this role because of the development of digital technology. The article also discusses the main reasons, trends and prospects for the development of a modern model of collaborative consumption; defines the popular term “sharing economy” and provides some historical aspects of the origins of the modern concept of collaborative consumption; assesses the value of the sharing economy in the production of modern public goods; reveals the expectations associated with collaborative consumption and analyzes criticism of the sharing economy; conclusions about the ability of information and communication technologies to promote the production of useful (rational, profitable) public goods for consumers in the private sector and it is recommended that the scientific community and government officials pay attention to this process.

Keywords: public goods, collaborative consumption, sharing economy, carsharing, carpooling, uberisation

JEL Codes: H40, H41, H44

 

Introduction

 

It’s the absolute truth, that the development of society without the production of public goods is impossible. It is widely acknowledged that public medicine and education are not just beneficial to the poor, but also to whole society (the more educated and healthier a society is, the more productive it is in the long run, and the safer and more comfortable the people's lives are in such a society). The need to organize national defense and public order, the maintenance of cultural monuments, the need to care for national forest parks and fresh air, and so on are all examples of the universal importance of public goods. There is much debate about the production and delivery of public goods to ensure a comfortable environment for people, although there is no discussion as to whether such a product is necessary for society, but rather about which product is optimal for society and to what extent and what share of total goods production and consumption it should have.

According to the popular thesis of economic theory, the free market is not interested in organizing the production of socially oriented products that do not involve profit, therefore, the state (society) should take responsibility for determining the amount of publicly needed goods, as well as their production and supply.

It is true that the notion of public goods does not imply that it is a product supplied to citizens by the state or municipal government (some public goods are supplied by private individuals, while government agencies provide citizens with both private and public products), however the main role in creating a public product is usually played by state and municipal government bodies, state-owned enterprises, institutions and organizations (G.A. Akhinov, E.N. Jiltsov, Public sector economics – М.: INFA–М., 2012, 14). At the same time, it should be noted that this objective reality may change in the future due to the rapid development of the digital economy.

 

Modern Concept of Collaborative Consumption

 

The progress of information technology and the widespread of the global network causes an increase in the production of useful public goods for people. Through the relevant internet platform, without any additional costs, anyone can use the passenger transfer service and get to the destination completely free of charge (Such services are offered to customers abroad by companies Lyft, BlaBlaCar, in Georgia - damemgzavre.ge. It is not necessary to pay for this service; drivers frequently demonstrate goodwill It’s not necessary to pay for this service; drivers often demonstrate good will and offer transportation services free of charge to those wishing to travel on a predetermined route); with the help of online services available to everyone, it is now free to leave your pet for a while for any volunteer (DogVacay); using the relevant internet platforms, people have the opportunity to have a free dinner and host someone by themselves (EatWith). The wide selection of websites allows the public to donate clothes, food, building materials or other items, etc.

The number of such projects implemented in the private sector is growing day by day, which is due to the growing desire of consumers to temporarily use unused and capitalized property on online platforms, rather than buying this property.

The economic model based on such economic behaviors of people is known as sharing economy. It can be said that in terms of content sharing economy is the same as the economic model of collaborative consumption of wealth, which involves the collective use of goods, services, barter or lease and is based on the main view that temporary use of the required product is more economically profitable (rational, advantageous) for people than owning this product.

According to “PricewaterhouseCoopers”, a reputable international auditing consulting firm, more than 19% of the US adult population now participates in the sharing economy. The same source claims that the sharing economy model is preferred by young people aged 18-24, as well as those households with an annual income of 50-75 thousand US Dollars and individuals living with children under 18 years of age (The Sharing Economy. Consumer Intelligence Series. PwC. // URL: //https://bit.ua/2020/10/5-trendiv-sharing-economy/).

The economic model of sharing consumption is not really a novelty for humanity. Before the advent of digital platforms, there were various points of rent for items or equipment for the collective use of goods and services, the so-called second-hand, libraries, etc., however, in the modern conditions of informatization of nearly all spheres of society, this model received a new stimulus for development and qualitatively changed the nature of economic relations between economic agents, which was mainly reflected in the sharp reduction of transaction costs - without the intervention of intermediaries, more and more goods and services are distributed among market participants day by day.

Experts from the World Economic Forum define the sharing economy as an economic activity based on online platform, which relies on collective consumption of incompletely (insufficiently) used assets (with or without pay) by persons of equal status (How much is the sharing economy worth to GDP? // URL: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/what-sthe-sharing-economy-doing-to-gdp-numbers/).

What led to the development of the economic model of collective consumption in the bosom of capitalism in the 21st century?

It can be said that the current state of the distribution of capital among the strata of society has had the greatest impact on the sharing economy.

The recent increase in property inequality between the very rich and the very poor has effectively divided people into two camps: on the one hand, there is the part of the society that can buy (own) wealth without any preconditions for its use; on the other hand, there is the part of the society that is forced to use goods and services only when needed. The economic factors causing the growing property imbalance were added to the psychological one - after all, modern society is characterized mainly by the mass (often useless) consumption of material goods and the formation of relevant values.

The modern concept of sharing consumption was introduced just ten years ago by economists Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers in their paper “What's Mine Are Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption”.

In June 2010, Rachel Botsman spoke at length about a new socio-economic model at the conference of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), hosted by the US Private Nonprofit Foundation (whose mission is primarily to spread unique ideas), which, in his view, will radically change the traditional method of consuming goods and services in the future. According to the speaker, people are increasingly refusing to exclusively own the property, which they can use temporarily, and such behavior brings more benefits to them. To illustrate this, Rachel Botsman cites a simple example of using a hand-held electric drill (Tagarov, B.Z. (2019). The Specifics of Sharing Economy and Conditions of its Development. ЕСО. No. 7. 146): people do not pay a small amount for this tool and often buy it only to use it for 10-15 minutes during the service period and make just a few holes. "Everyone needs a hole in the wall," Ms. Botsman jokingly added, pointing out the overall benefits of renting out an underdeveloped property.

In a sharing consumption model, there is indeed a significant reserve for the profitable use of items or equipment, as evidenced by the economic effect, which is achieved with the help of economic relations between participants (landlords and passengers) of modern projects known as "carsharing" and "carpooling": as a result of these economic relations, the latency (standing, non-use) of vehicles is reduced, Increases the overall utility of vehicles, that makes the use of vehicles for transportation optimal.

It should be noted that from an ecological point of view, "carpooling" is much safer than other methods of transport: because of joint travel, the amount of exhaust in the air is significantly reduced, traffic jams are significantly eased, less and less space is allocated for car parking, etc.

It is noteworthy that the development of "carsharing" had a certain impact on household decisions regarding the purchase and sale of vehicles. For example, a survey of people using carsharing in London showed that 33% of respondents changed their mind about buying a car, while 6% decided to sell their car in the future; according to a social survey conducted in China, more than 50% of carsharing customers have postponed their decision to buy a personal car for the future. You can see the rather interesting results of one of the surveys on the same topic in the graph below (source: Ipsos views).

Considering that a change in ownership attitude can bring additional benefits to the customer (for example, a person using the same "carsharing" service saves a lot of time and money related to car maintenance), the above statistics testify unequivocally to the impressive results of rationality achieved for the whole society because of this transformation.

 

“Uberization”

 

The process of transition from the traditional capitalist model ("firm - consumer") to the digital service model of goods and services (some economists also evaluate events in this manner) is widely termed as "uberization". The origin of the term is linked to the functioning of the American company Uber, which, through the mobile application of the same name, practically searches and calls the vehicle needed by the customer internationally (more precisely, this firm digitally transmits customer request for transportation services to private taxi drivers using the company's app) (Leslie Hook. Review – 'The Sharing Economy', by Arun Sundararajan ((registration required)) // Financial Times. – 2016. – June 2016).

 

 

According to the principle of Uber, today there are many companies operating in various fields of production of goods and services: every year more than 100 million users use the service of the company Airbnb, whose Internet platform allows people to offer their accommodation to travelers in their country; more than 150 million active users enjoy eBay's largest online auction, where virtually any item can be bought or sold worldwide; the company generates hundreds of billions of dollars in online payments each year in 43 countries through Stripe's technical and banking infrastructure, and more.

It should be noted here that there is frequent controversy in scientific circles about whether the services of the above companies should be considered within the model of a sharing economy (A.Jidkov. The concept of the public good and the development of the service sector. Vestnik MU name of S.Y. Witte. Series 1. Economics and Management. #4 (23)’2017, 52). The main point of contention is likely that the direction of the collective use of wealth in the economic relations initiated by the mentioned firms is overshadowed by the commercial trend of services typical of traditional economic unions (usually these companies receive a certain commission from each transaction).

 

Expectations Related to the Modern Model of Shared Consumption and 

Critique of the Sharing Economy

 

Despite the different viewpoints on the above, many experts agree that we are currently witnessing the development of some new (more hybrid) type of economic relations, which may even have some impact on the transformation of the socio-economic order of modern society. 

Economic experts and scholars optimistic about such changes hope that people will become less and less dependent on property and will prefer to use property temporarily, that will undoubtedly help to increase investment; in addition, limited resources will be used more efficiently and rationally; reducing transaction costs will be a prerequisite for expanding the choice of goods and services at affordable prices for consumers; the degree of trust between people will increase and the level of communication will increase too; significantly reduce the negative consequences of adverse environmental impacts; large cities are gradually being unloaded, which in turn will bring about a number of beneficial changes, and so on.

It is understandable that, like any controversy, the modern model of the wealth-sharing economy often provokes fair criticism. Skeptics focus mainly on the fact that the sharing economy may threaten traditional labor markets, reduce overall wage levels, and weaken the role and influence of trade unions. Some critics are not afraid to make even radical assessments: 

  • "Beyond the automotive business, the sharing economy does not have much of an impact on people's ownership of property. Consumption will not decline, capitalism will not change," wrote the authoritative online publishing house Vox;

  • “Friends, no one shares anything with another. The term sharing economy has only created a shining halo around companies like Airbnb and Uber, it simply has no other burden ... We refer to such companies as "ordering services" in the editorial: they help people, for example, find a cleaner when they need it. This is a new approach to meeting consumer demand and let us not deceive ourselves that we are not dealing with capitalism," Wired magazine wrote.

In the end I would like to provide you with one interesting and very significant information: in the ranking compiled by the organization Timbro on the size of the common consumer economy, Georgia is in the 28th position among 213 countries in the world (Timbro. // URL:  https://timbro.se/ekonomi/timbro-sharing-economy-index/). Against this background, it is especially regrettable to note that the process of developing a sharing economy is not receiving adequate attention in Georgia.

 

Conclusions and Recommendations:

  • The state plays a key role in creating the public goods necessary for the normal functioning of society, although because of the rapid development of the digital economy, this truth may undergo some adjustments in the long run;

  • Advances in information and communication technologies allow consumers to profitably (cost effectively, rationally) benefit from a completely new type of goods and services, which, despite being produced in the private sector rather than the state, have characteristics resembling public wealth;

  • The modern model of sharing consumption is developing rapidly in virtually every country (including Georgia), so constant monitoring of this process, as well as in-depth scientific research and thorough study, is an urgent need.




References: 

  • Akhinov G.A. Jiltsov E.N. (2012). Public Sector Economics – М.: INFA–М., 2012. (In Russian).

  • Jidkov A. (2017).  The Concept of the Public Good and the Development of the Service Sector. Vestnik MU name of S.Y. Witte. Series 1. Economics and Management. #4 (23). 2017. (In Russian).

  • Leslie Hook (2016). Review – “The Sharing Economy”, by Arun Sundararajan ((registration required)) // Financial Times.– June 2016.

  • The Sharing Economy. Consumer Intelligence Series. PwC. // URL: //https://bit.ua/2020/10/5-trendiv-sharing-economy/.

  • Tagarov B.Z. (2019). The Specifics of Sharing Economy and Conditions of Its Development. ЕСО. No. 7. Pp. 140-155. (In Russian). DOI: 10.30680/ ЕСО0131-7652-2019-7-140-15

  • Timbro // URL:  https://timbro.se/ekonomi/timbro-sharing-economy-index/.

  • World Economic Forum. How Much Is the Sharing Economy Worth to GDP? // URL: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/what-sthe-sharing-economy-doing-to-gdp-numbers/